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Your Preparation instore will alone be intended. This maths is Akismet to be nature. The websites, and almost. Calvinist theology is based on scripture, denies free will, supports the dual predestinationfor some men, which are destined for eternal glory and others to eternaldamnation and argues that civil institutions, wanted by God even when theymanifest themselves in tyrorical forms, they must be established on the respectof authority and of their vocation, that is the acceptance of the place thateveryone competes in society.
His reasoningstarts with the remodulation of the concept of Libido that is not a purelysexual energy, but rather the force that allows man to achieve his consistentpurpose in the preservation of the species, thanks to the reproduction, thathappens, in turn, through the sexual impulse. Sexual drive is not the onlyincentive that pushes an individual towards another gender opposite, but alsofrom a set of physical and character traits, that arouse that psychic functionthat Connell calls Interest.
For this reason he replaces the term Libido withInstinct of Interest. The Instinct of Interest is determined by endocrinologicalsecretions and, allowing the focus on an individual of the opposite sex forwhich one feels attraction, it allows procreation and therefore thepreservation of the species.
In a way he finds the synthesis between religiouspredetermination and psychic determinism. From the moment in which the individual does not recognize or escapesfrom what should be his natural point of interest, begins the psychopathology. The hormonally charged energies on sexual urges, if they are deemed to bemorally inappropriate, not being able to discharge itself with the sexual act,generate consequences both deterministic and physical and psychological. From adeterministic point of view the sexual act missed and therefore the non -satisfaction of the instinct of conservation of the species leads to a lack ofmeaning of life for the individual and therefore to a weakening of the instinctof self - preservation of the sexual act in neurotic leads to the idea ofdeath.
From a physical point of view,the undischarged energies free themselves on the neurovegetative system,generating various kinds of somatizations. From a psychological point of viewthe sexual act missed lived as a lack of Eros in the mind of the neurotic givesway to Thanatos which manifests itself as an idea of death.
In summary,whatever the point of view used, the conclusion is that the denial of thesexual act in the neurotic, in turn, linked to the disavoption of the object ofinterest, it makes the psychopathology and the idea of death arise. Thepresence of a physical pathology, weakening the functionality of the endocrinesystem, it causes sexual urges to have a lower energy charge so that allconsequences will be less intense; paradoxically this undermines the idea ofdeath in the mind of the neurotic. If the first one is stronger than the second, than the individual will notdevelop either psychopathology or idea of death, while it will happen exactlythe opposite if the second is stronger than the first.
According to Connell, regression occurs whengenital sexual urges cannot be fulfilled or subjected to delay or elaborate;this situation, due to the fact that the individual did not follow his ownInstinct of Interest, not allowing an adult lifestyle, determines a regressionto previous psychosexual developmental stages; if the regression isparticularly accentuated, the individual projects his sexual impulses onhimself, going subject to a more or less accentuated narcissism.
Connell developed some theories on the etiopathogenesis of the main psychopathologies, based on the idea of death. Depression would be due to the persistence of the idea of death in the mind of the neurotic and retained in his psyche, while in paranoia the idea of death is projected outside through delirium in general, and that of persecution in particular. The significance of the idea of death in the neurotic mind, Journal of Mental Sciences renamed from British Journal of Psychiatry Vol. IV, pp. Celani David P. Fenichel Otto, The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis, W. Hoffman Marie T.
Casi classici della psicologia
William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn proveniva da una famiglia della media borghesia scozzese, benestante ma problematica e con una forte impronta religiosa. Presso questa scuola Fairbairn ricevette una formazione classica. Per la sua costruzione furono usati fondi derivanti da un lascito del Vescovo e Teologo Robert Reid , Clackmannan, Scozia - Dieppe, Normandia, Francia, 6 settembre Con la fine della prima guerra mondiale Strasburgo diveniva territorio francese per cui il suo nome veniva francesizzato;.
Gli psicoanalisti scozzesi hanno da sempre cercato un connubio tra la loro forte fede religiosa e la dottrina psicoanalitica. Nel Fairbairn divenne membro della British Psychoanalytical Society. A peggiorare le cose man mano che il suo pensiero andava avanti, Fairbairn non riformulava i concetti elaborati in precedenza adeguandoli in modo coerente alle nuove formulazioni ma li lasciava per come era stata la proposizione originaria con nascita quindi di evidenti dissonanze se non di vere e proprie contraddizioni; ne consegue che le sue opere comprendono una serie di concetti, i quali, magari centrati sugli stessi argomenti ed al tempo stesso non coerenti tra loro, non possono essere usati ai fini della formulazione di un corpus dottrinario completo ed unitario.
Un ulteriore problema degli scritti di Fairbairn consiste nel fatto che essi vertono su questioni dottrinali trattati in modo filosofico e scevro da riferimenti clinici. I tre Oggetti Esterni fanno nascere altrettanti Oggetti Interni ad essi correlati che entrano in gioco in loro assenza e ne hanno le stesse caratteristiche.
La relazione madre-bambino assume diversi risvolti secondo lo stadio di sviluppo psichico del bambino. Nel pensiero di Fairbairn lo sviluppo psichico del bambino si articola nei seguenti stadi:. Verso la fine di tale stadio si posiziona il Complesso Edipico.
Se esso dopo essere stato espulso nel mondo esterno rientrasse in quello interno potrebbe suscitare Angoscia di Morte. Il trattamento analitico praticato da Fairbairn si articola in modo differente come tecniche e come scopi da quello classico. Il pensiero di Fairbairn, con tutti i suoi limiti, appare comunque essere il primo nella dottrina psicoanalitica, ad essere strutturato, in modo sufficientemente completo, in senso relazionale. From instinct to self: selected papers of W. Fairbairn, 2 voll. Clarke Graham S. Wilfred Ruprecht Bion came from a family of the English upper middle class resident in India.
We do not have many other details about his family that he did not like at all. He said little about his mother and his family members that they were missionaries. The years of his early childhood are marked by a strong ambivalence, on the one hand an unhappy family life and on the other the magical and mysterious India that he always carried in his heart. Bion reports that the father was distant and the mother anaffective. In this period he lay down on his belly and moved up and down practicing a rough masturbation.
Realizing that instead the little sister felt no pleasure, he went to ask the parents the reason for this difference; in response they forced him to take 3 baths lasting 3 minutes for 3 consecutive days in a tank full of water in which a healing substance had been mixed. After the third day the parents became convinced that they had solved the problem, which was obviously not true. It is probable that his family life was not as terrible as he actually described it, as his memories may have been deformed by an unresolved Oedipus Complex for which he was punished by Arf Arfer.
Moreover, regarding family life, he was in India with his elephants, his tigers and his mysterious and unspeakable landscapes; his old nurse whom he called Ayah was also an Indian and who probably he loved even more than his parents. When it was time to go to school, as used in the colonial bourgeoisie of the time, he was sent to the mother country to study. In it was bought by independent Protestant religious groups, called Non-Conformists, and, renamed Nonconformist Grammar School, changed its teaching orientation by assuming a strongly religious identity.
Bion was immersed in a scholastic atmosphere steeped in religiosity, which he began to hate in particular because it promised the worst punishments to fornicators, while he could not abandon his masturbatory activities, so much so that he was surprised by a teacher while he masturbated and for this severely scolded. This period was also characterized for him by a strong sense of abandonment, as he did not see his family in the following three years, and by a marked sense of nostalgia for the loss of his Ayah and the familiar landscapes of India.
He was not satisfied with social relations because he could not make friends with his schoolmates whom he perceived as too religious. Lastly, the rainy weather of England fueled the nostalgia felt for the sun and the heat of India. The only positive side of his school was to have a strong reputation in the sports field; from it was equipped with an indoor pool with hot water, thus becoming one of the first English schools to have this privilege.
Indeed, Bion has become one of the owners of his water polo team. Bion lived better the transition to high school, at the same school, thanks to the greater tolerance towards sexual activities. In spite of this, he felt a strong discomfort due to the increase of the impulses related to the pubertal hormonal explosion, to his own clumsiness in any type of activity, even daily, to a non-acceptance of his own bodily changes.
During this period he successfully carried out sporting activities, particularly in rugby. On July 28, , the First World War broke out. Bion, the following year, having finished high school, he decided to enlist as a volunteer, but was rejected on the conscription visit.
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The father, realizing that Wilfred had lived very badly this refusal, intervened through his contacts in the army which shows that he was not as detached as Bion described him , so on January 4, he was drafted and assigned to the Tank Corps, in a battalion of armored vehicles. Arriving at the front, in France, he soon regretted his military choice, so during the bombing he had moments of derealization, which helped him to survive psychologically.
On February 18, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order, an important honor for his actions in the Battle of Cambrai Upper France, France , which took place from November 20 to December 17, On November 11, the war ended and Bion returned to England. He was very tried by the war because of the course mates he had attended, only three had survived. This war experience have influenced many of his elaborations on the dynamics of groups. It is composed of 38 associated colleges organized independently. Bion in those years took compulsive masturbatory activities, which had been sublimated during the war period.
In he decided to return to England to make the most of what he learned for work. However, this experience was brief: he was accused by the mother of one of his pupils of having abused his son, so he had to resign and did not undergo a legal process only for his military past. Having seen the book "Three essays on the theory of sexuality " by Freud in the bookstore, he bought it and read it eagerly to find a solution to his sexual problems.
Feeling deeply impressed by his contents, he decided to become a psychoanalyst. For this reason, in he enrolled in the degree course in Medicine at the University of London, University College, the third oldest British university but the first lay. In it merged with the Middlesex Hospital Medical School which was founded in at the eponymous hospital, born the year before with the name of Middlesex Infirmary, to treat the poor taking the name of University College and Middlesex School of Medicine and in merged with the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine founded in under the name of the London School of Medicine for Women, a university created to allow women to graduate in Medicine in , returning to the ancient name of University College London Medical School.
During the course of his studies, he became friends with one of the Professors of Surgery, Wilfred Batten Lewis Trotter Coleford, South East England, November 3, - Blackmoor, South East England, November 25, ; Trotter, an expert in Social Psychology, brother-in-law of the great English psychoanalyst Ernst Jones, as well as one of the last surgeons of Freud, whom he had known for many years before his exile in England.
Trotter was for Bion the ideal of professional and of man, he exercised a great influence on him, encouraging him in his psychoanalytic vocation. In Bion graduated in Medicine and received a gold medal for his studies in surgery. In , it was equipped with beds, began to function as a hospital. In it was moved to a larger location in Portland Terrace. In it became the seat of a School of massages and electrotherapy.
In a Radiology Service was opened, one of the first in the United Kingdom. In he was one of the pilot sites in England for the experimentation of barbiturates in the treatment of epilepsy. In it changed its name again to Maida Vale Hospital for Nervous Diseases and once again it was one of the first English hospitals to use electroencephalography in neurological diagnostics.
In new applications of radiology were introduced, such as ventriculography, encephalography and arteriography in the diagnostic protocols of this hospital. After the Second World War a slow decline began because, beyond the avant-garde technology used, the hospital suffered from the wear and tear of time. In it was permanently closed. In he began his first analysis with James Arthur Hadfield that should have been 12 sessions for pounds, a very substantial sum for the time; this analysis, which lasted almost 3 years, was characterized by an absolutely negative countertransference.
Hadfield belonged to the Parafreudian Movement, which was inspired by the Freudian doctrine in which however spiritual concepts of a religious nature and philosophical-spiritual concepts of Jungian tendency were introduced since most of the adherents to this current of thought were direct or otherwise followers of Jung, however, at the same time, they did not feel like passing sic et simpliciter in the Jungian camp. This line of thought, typically English, was born after the Jungian schism of , increased in importance until the first post-war period and then started to decrease before the Second World War and disappear with the end of it.
From the technical point of view the analysis practiced by Hadfield with Bion was rather reductive, as it was restricted only to the search for traumatic events of the past to understand how they could influence the present, without any consideration for the transference and countertransference aspects; for this reason Bion gave Hadfield the nickname Mister FIP, from a phrase that Hadfield often pronounced "Feel In The Past".
The Psychopatic Clinic was founded, at the same time as the Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals, in July on the impulse of Grace Winifred Pailthorpe surgeon, psychoanalyst, surrealist artist. Bion was hired by the Psychopatic Clinic staff in , thanks to Hadfield.
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The Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals was located in the Vauxhall district of London and its mission was to train and update the operators as well as to raise public awareness of criminology issues through study courses, conferences, research and publications. The Psychopatic Clinic provided psychoanalytic outpatient treatments to aggressive acting-out patients and organized training courses in Forensic Psychology.
Due to the lack of adequate premises, for economic-organizational problems, given that the services were provided free of charge and the staff were not paid by operating as a volunteer, the first patients were treated in the private studies of the individual members of the group; the first patient was taken into care in the Clinic premises on September 18, , in a room rented by the Western Hospital in London for 5 shillings during the morning hours only.
The Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminal in July was renamed Institute for the Scientific Treatment of Delinquency because it began to provide training courses in Forensic Psychology to the operators of the sector. In May and February respectively the Institute and the Clinic moved to n. During World War II, both structures greatly reduced their activity, as many staff members had been enrolled in the British Armed Forces. After the war, as the whole area around Portman Street was heavily damaged by bombs, both structures moved to no. From the second post-war period to the present, the vision of English criminology was strongly influenced by these structures.
In the Clinic became part of the British Health Service. In the Institute launched its own scientific journal with the name of The British Journal of Delinquency and in it was renamed Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency. In the scientific journal changed its name to The British Journal of Criminology: an International Review of Crime and Society to extend, at the suggestion of Edward Glover, the area of research and observation also in criminological aspects, not necessarily of a legal nature but also of a social nature.
In the Clinic moved to n. In the organization of the first European Criminology Congress set off from the Institute. In the Institute also launched a quarterly magazine with the name of Criminal Justice Matters. In the Portman Clinic and the Tavistock Clinic, to overcome an important economic crisis, decided to merge by combining their respective competences and giving birth to the Tavistock and Portman NHS Trust which in , having assumed the status of Foundation, changed its name to Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust.
In the Institute assumed its current name Center for Crime and Justice Studies, returning to the Vauxhall district, more precisely to n. In T. Drummond Hunter historian, lawyer and ex-Administrator of the Tavistock Clinic, Cumnock, Scotland, - Edinburgh, April 25, founded, on the model of the Center for Crime and Justice Studies, the Scottish Consortium on Crime and Criminal Justice, with the same mission and identical activities. In Bion was able to deal not only with forensic psychology, but also with clinical psychology, as Hadfield also introduced him to the London group Tavistock Clinic, one of the sancta sanctorum of psychoanalysis.
This structure was originally called the Tavistock Institute of Medical Psychology from the name of the square of the same name to which it was located at that time ; it was inaugurated on January 1, , although the first patient, a child, was taken in charge on September 27, The clinic treated both children and adults, although initially its main specialty was the treatment of post-traumatic war-type stress disorders. The treatments, especially provided for the indigent population, were free, so the costs of maintaining the structure, including those for the payment of personnel and for carrying out research, were supported thanks to the payment of training courses for psychotherapists, educators, teachers, counselors, general practitioners and social workers.
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The ruling ideology in the Tavistock Clinic was that of the Parafreudian Movement, whose influence gradually diminished over time, while the Object Relations Theory became predominant after the end of World War II; the Tavistock Clinic was indeed the cradle of this doctrine.
Object Relations Theory includes a series of models of the functioning of the mind whose precursor was Karl Abraham; it was later developed by Melanie Klein, her pupil, and was very popular in England. This theory differed from the Freudian one mainly because it shifted the attentional focus from the oedipal period to the previous phases and from the father-mother-child triad to the mother-child dyad.
Group-based analytical therapies such as the Balint Groups and the Group Analysis were developed at the Tavistock Clinic.
The views of the Tavistock Clinic have had a great deal of influence not only in the clinical and educational fields but also in sociological, military, forensic, penitentiary, art, education, social services, health services, and business consultancy. In the Tavistock group decided to split up: the clinical and educational part remained at the Tavistock Clinic, while the part concerning human relations within the organizations was entrusted to a new structure the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations; Bion presided over the Planning Committee for the reorganization of the Tavistock Group.
Together with the clinical activity Training Courses in Couple Psychotherapy were prepared; in June the Bureau had become a national center of excellence, also in the Research on couple issues, it was renamed Tavistock Center for Couple Relationships. From the s onwards, in place of the Object Relations Theory in the Tavistock group, a new type of paradigm was adopted, called the Tavistock Model or Psychodynamic-Systemic or Tavistock Model. This model is a conceptual paradigm of an eclectic type, which recognizes its fundamental theoretical matrices in psychoanalysis and group analysis; to these basic characteristics are added contributions from systemic doctrine, social psychology, sociology both individually and of groups and organizations, political and economic-business sciences.
In this method a clinical theory of the organization is postulated, whose functioning is influenced by the behavior, often unconscious, of the individuals gathered in the company group, whose actions can make the market strategies fail or exalt in an apparently unpredictable way; this is why a group analytic application, which works on the unconscious, can respond better than others in corporate reorganization processes. The Tavistock model training is given through the attendance of the "Group Relations Conference", which are a series of several seminars, each of which can last from 3 days to 2 weeks, during which the participants explore group relations with various roles, respectively as leader or follower in groups of various sizes and with differentiated tasks, using learning processes based almost exclusively on experience.
In John Derg Sutherland, known as Jock Sutherland, former Director of the Tavistock Clinic, returned to his native Scotland and worked hard to create a twin Institute with the London one, finding fertile ground, very similar to the London one at the time of the Parafreudians, many of which, however, were of Scottish origin. Scottish psychoanalysts have always sought a marriage between their strong religious faith and psychoanalytic doctrine.
In Scotland the most widespread Evangelical Creed is Presbyterianism which refers to the Calvinist doctrine. Calvinist theology is based on the Holy Scriptures, denies free will, supports double predestination for some men who are destined for eternal glory or eternal damnation and maintains that civil institutions, desired by God even when they manifest themselves in tyrannical forms, they must be respected and their vocation must be accepted, that is, the acceptance of the place that everyone has in society.
Furthermore, they do not believe that the sexual drive is the engine of human behavior or its purpose. The Institute, organized like the London one, though independent, promoted the same activities and was very successful in the first two decades of its existence, so much so that in it opened a branch also in Glascow Scotland and consortium with the Sutherland Trust from name of Jock Sutherland of Edinburgh, founded a year before with the name of Social Workers and Allied Professionals Trust Fund to raise awareness, train and update all the operators of the sociopedic educational sector with psychoanalytic methodology.
In the early s the Scottish Institute of Human Relations began to have a slow decline, so much so that in it stopped its activities and in it closed its doors. The Sutherland Trust, on the other hand, continues to function today. Bion, after his arrival at Tavistock in , simultaneously with his first analysis with Hadfield, began attending the Tavistock specialization course in Psychotherapy. Beckett presented panic attacks accompanied by palpitations and feelings of suffocation, which is why he had decided to undertake an analysis. Among the causes there were the sudden death of the father, the difficult relationship with the anaffective mother, who criticized the son of whom she did not appreciate the literary talents and finally the repulsion tried by Beckett towards his work as Professor of French Language and Literature at Trinity College Dublin.
However, the analysis had its benefits so much that towards the end of Beckett felt better, ending it. During the analysis one of his masterpieces began, Murphy, who published in , inspired by what was said by Jung in his third lecture held at the Tavistock Clinic on 2th October , during which he showed a correspondence between the characters of the novels with the images mental of their authors; the conferences that Jung held at the Tavistock Clinic were 5, from 30th September to 4th October Bion, despite working both at the Psychopatic Clinic and at the Portman Clinic, was always short of money as in both of these structures the staff members provided free clinical services and earned something only with the teaching of the various Training Courses they provided.
Given that the earnings were not consistent and were not enough to pay even the analysis, Hadfield made a proposal to Bion with these terms: he would send him patients and with a part of the Bion fee he would pay the analysis. Bion took the opportunity to interrupt the analytical treatment by claiming that if he had made such an agreement he would not have felt right with his conscience and not doing so he would not have had the money to pay for the analysis.
In Bion, having been dissatisfied with his first analysis, undertook a second with John Rickman, who was a key figure in English psychoanalysis of the time having been a direct pupil of Freud. The marriage was happy, although it did not last long, inasmuch on February 28, , in Bournemouth South West England, United Kingdom Betty died of pulmonary embolism during childbirth while Bion was in Normandy for war reasons.
From this birth a little girl was born, Parthenope Bion who as an adult became a psychoanalyst, married the Italian musician Luigi Talamo, went to live in Turin, gave birth in turn to his little daughter named Patrizia and died with her in a car accident on 16 July On April 1, , Bion was recalled to the army as a medical officer, with the rank of major, as well as all the members of the Tavistock group; its first destination was the Craigmile Bottom Hospital so called from the area in which it was located , which still exists.
Still with the same purpose, he was first transferred to the Military Hospital of Chester North West England and later, to that of York Yorkshire and Humber , both abandoned after the war. During Bion, while he was in York, went several times to visit Rickman who had been assigned to the still functioning Wharncliffe War Hospital, located in Wharncliffe Side, a village near Sheffield Yorkshire and Humber.
Bion wrote in this regard what became known as the Wharncliffe Memorandum, containing the first ideas concerning the functioning of the therapeutic community but unfortunately of which no copy has survived. In he was sent first to Edinburgh and then to London to take part, in both cases, in a Military Commission which had to take an interest in the selection of officers; here he, for this purpose, used the method of the Leaderless Group.
This method consisted in making the group do a project that would have to carry out it autonomously and later put a problem to every single individual to observe how each of them would have set the solution and finally asked each candidate to give a judgment on his own work; the whole procedure was carried out in the presence of the examiner who, pretending to be also a candidate not to influence the progress of the operation, obtained the information necessary for the selection.
This method did not please the senior army, therefore, he invented another in two stages, consisting first of all in a pre-selection made by the troops by vote and then in the actual selective interview done with the officers in charge to the task. Not even this procedure appealed to the Army Headquarters, Bion, in , having learned that Rickman, as early as April of that year, had been transferred to the Second Birmingham War Hospital which was located in the Northfield neighborhood Birmingham, West Midlands , asked to join him, which happened in September always in Sigma manual gas inflating life jacket.
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