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Collaborative journals: scaffolding reflective practice in teacher education Deborah V. Blair in: Narrative soundings, Dordrecht : Springer. Colours and sounds: The field of visual and auditory consciousness Junichi Murata in: The Oxford handbook of contemporary phenomenology, Oxford : Oxford University Press. Commodifying autism: the cultural contexts of "disability" in the academy Rebecca Mallett , Katherine Runswick-Cole in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer.

Community beyond instrumental reason: the idea of donation in Deleuze and Lyotard James Williams in: Critical communities and aesthetic practices, Dordrecht : Springer. Complexity and complexity theories: do these concepts make sense? Complexity and its observer: Does complexity increase in the course of evolution? Complexity theories of cities: achievements, criticism and potentials Juval Portugali in: Complexity theories of cities have come of age, Dordrecht : Springer.

Complexity theories of cities: implications to urban planning Juval Portugali in: Complexity theories of cities have come of age, Dordrecht : Springer. Complexity theories of cities have come of age: an overview with implications to urban planning and design Juval Portugali , Han Meyer , Egbert Stolk , Ekim Tan ed Dordrecht, Springer. Computational representation of medical concepts: a semiotic and fuzzy logic approach Mila Kwiatkowska , Krzysztof Michalik , Krzysztof Kielan in: Soft computing in humanities and social sciences, Dordrecht : Springer. Conclusion: making time — the social temporalities of mediated experience Emily Keightley in: Time, media and modernity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Conclusion: actual and future consequences of implementing and researching developmental education Bert van Oers in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Confucian rites of passage: a comparative analysis of zhu xi's family rituals Ping-Cheung Lo in: Ritual and the moral life, Dordrecht : Springer. Confucian ritualization: how and why? Connecting community, critical, and classical knowledge in teaching mathematics for social justice Eric Gutstein in: Alternative forms of knowing in mathematics, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

Conseguenze del fisicalismo sulla mente Andrea Lavazza Rivista di estetica Conservation or resource maximization? Chacon in: The ethics of anthropology and Amerindian research, Dordrecht : Springer. Constructive Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, power set, and the calculus of constructions Michael Rathjen in: Epistemology versus ontology, Dordrecht : Springer.

Constructivist versus structuralist foundations Erik Palmgren in: Epistemology versus ontology, Dordrecht : Springer. Consulting the divine John Kellermeier in: Alternative forms of knowing in mathematics, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Contemporary indigenous education Gary Urton in: Alternative forms of knowing in mathematics, Rotterdam : SensePublishers. Moore ed Dordrecht, Springer. Contesting John Searle's social ontology: institutions and background Joseph Margolis in: Knowing without thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Contributions of mirror mechanisms to the embodiment of cognition Arthur M.

Glenberg in: Action, perception and the brain, Dordrecht : Springer. Contro i fatti Arianna Betti Rivista di estetica Corpus anarchicum: political protest, suicidal violence, and the making of the posthuman body Hamid Dabashi Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Cosmopolitan liberalism and its limits Craig Calhoun in: European cosmopolitanism in question, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Cosmopolitan trends across world regions: discerning a European exceptionalism Victor Roudometof , William Haller in: European cosmopolitanism in question, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Cosmopolitanism in social theory: an ambivalent defence Daniel Chernilo in: European cosmopolitanism in question, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Creating knowledge and practice in the classroom Bea Pompert in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Crisis as a discursive frame in mathematics education research and reform Delaina Washington , Zayoni Torres , Maisie Gholson in: Alternative forms of knowing in mathematics, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

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Sweeney in: Paradigms in theory construction, Dordrecht : Springer. Critical communities and aesthetic practices: dialogues with Tony O'Connor on society, art, and friendship Julia Jansen ed Dordrecht, Springer. Critical privacy Factors of internet of things services: an empirical investigation with domain experts Tobias Kowatsch , Wolfgang Maass in: Knowledge and technologies in innovative information systems, Dordrecht : Springer. Critique, advocacy, and dissemination: I've got the data and the findings, now what?

Critique, dissent, disciplinarity Judith Butler in: Conceptions of critique in modern and contemporary philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Cui bono? Cultural and philosophical resistance to ritual in contemporary culture David Solomon in: Ritual and the moral life, Dordrecht : Springer. Current commentary: the arc of civil liberation36 Jeffrey C. Alexander in: Sacred science?

Cyborgs, cripples and icrip: reflections on the contribution of Haraway to disability studies Donna Reeve in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer. Dancing with disability: an intersubjective approach Eimir McGrath in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer. Daniel Becquemont et Dominique Ottavi Dirs. Darwinism past and present: is it past its "sell-by" date? Darwinized Hegelianism or hegelianized Darwinism? Das Unkontrollierbare kontrollieren mit Neurofeedback? Debating phenomenological methods Linda Finlay in: Hermeneutic phenomenology in education, Dordrecht : Springer.

Depth as an extra spatial dimension and its implications for cosmology and gravity theory A. Derrida: echoes of the forthcoming Olivia Custer in: Conceptions of critique in modern and contemporary philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Derrida's specters: futurity, finitude, forgetting Joanna Hodge in: Critical communities and aesthetic practices, Dordrecht : Springer. Desire in the time of aids Grahame Hayes in: Re con figuring psychoanalysis, Dordrecht : Springer. Deskription oder Reflexion? Developing an alternative learning trajectory for rational number reasoning, geometry, and measuring based on indigenous knowledge Jerry Lipka , Monica Wong , Dora Andrew-Ihrke , Evelyn Yanez in: Alternative forms of knowing in mathematics, Rotterdam : SensePublishers.

Developmental education: foundations of a play-based curriculum Bert van Oers in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Developmental education for young children: basic development Frea Janssen-Vos , Bea Pompert in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Developmental education for young children: concept, practice and implementation Bert van Oers ed Dordrecht, Springer. Developmental education schools as learning organisations Hans Bakker in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Dialogical genres: empractical and conversational listening and speaking Daniel C.

Dichtung als repraesentatio: G. Leibniz und A. Vloet in: Positionen der Psychiatrie, Dordrecht : Springer. Was lehrt uns die Krise? Digital methods: five challenges in: Understanding digital humanities, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Disability and the majority world: a neocolonial approach Shaun Grech in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer.

Disability, development and postcolonialism Tsitsi Chataika in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer. Discipline and learn: bodies, pedagogy and writing Megan Watkins ed Dordrecht, Springer. Discourses of disabled peoples' organisations: Foucault, Bourdieu and future perspectives Theo Blackmore , Stephen Lee Hodgkins in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer.

Discussion and conclusions Richard J. Disembodied communication and religious experience: the online model David S. Divided time: notes on cosmopolitanism and the theory of second modernity Andreas Langenohl in: European cosmopolitanism in question, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Do computers dream of cinema? Does pragmatism have a theory of power? Does Rorty's pragmatism undermine itself? Domestic time in the sensory home: the textures and rhythms of knowing, practice, memory and imagination Sarah Pink in: Time, media and modernity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Doubt has been eliminated Roger Strand in: Sacred science? Dummett on abstract objects George Duke Dordrecht, Springer. Ecological imagination and aims of moral education through the Kyoto school and American pragmatism Steven Fesmire in: Education and the Kyoto school of philosophy, Dordrecht : Springer. Edmund Husserl and Jacques Lacan: an ethical difference in epistemology?

Education Laura G. Education and the Kyoto school of philosophy: pedagogy for human transformation Paul Standish , Naoko Saito ed Dordrecht, Springer. Educational reciprocity and developing autonomy: the social dimension of becoming oneself in: Becoming oneself, Dordrecht : Springer. Einleitung zum Plenum: Europa als Konfliktraum. Elementary general music teachers and professional development: kindling the spark, fanning the flame, and keeping an eye on the fire Alison M.

Reynolds in: Narrative soundings, Dordrecht : Springer. Embodied technology as implicit background of modern civilization Klaus Mainzer in: Knowing without thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Emergence — still trendy after all these years John Michael in: Rudolf Carnap and the legacy of logical empiricism, Dordrecht : Springer. Empathy: from bench to bedside Jean Decety ed Cambridge, Mass. Empati og spejling hos Husserl Dan Zahavi Kritik Empirical technoscience studies in a Comtean world: too much concreteness?

En compagnie de la guerre Mathilde Girard Le Portique En passant par: une expression en voie de Grammaticalisation? Engaging stories: constructing narratives of women's military band members Janet Cape , Jeananne Nichols in: Narrative soundings, Dordrecht : Springer. Engaging with disability with postcolonial theory Anita Ghai in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer.

Enjeux Enkinaesthesia: the essential sensuous background for co-agency Susan A J Stuart in: Knowing without thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Entretiens Entschiedene Unentscheidbarkeit Oliver W. Revue germanique internationale 15 Ernst Cassirer Erp post-adoption: use and value — an empirical study on portuguese smes Pedro Ruivo , Tiago Oliveira , Miguel Neto in: Knowledge and technologies in innovative information systems, Dordrecht : Springer.

European cosmopolitanism: a critical introduction Anne Sophie Krossa , Roland Robertson in: European cosmopolitanism in question, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. European cosmopolitanism and the global field Roland Robertson in: European cosmopolitanism in question, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Evaluating philosophies Mario Bunge Dordrecht, Springer. Evaluation of learning and development Ester van Oers in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Evans, Nicholas, Ces mots qui meurent. Every child is special: teaching young children with special needs Barbara Nellestijn , Isabel Peters in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Evidence in the phenomenology of religious experience Anthony Steinbock in: The Oxford handbook of contemporary phenomenology, Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Evolution: remarks on the history of a concept adopted by Darwin Volker Gerhardt in: The theory of evolution and its impact, Dordrecht : Springer. Evolution and logic Jan M. Smith in: Epistemology versus ontology, Dordrecht : Springer. Evolutionary mechanisms and neural adaptation: selective versus constructive strategies in the development and plasticity of the nervous system Ferdinando Rossi in: The theory of evolution and its impact, Dordrecht : Springer. Evolutionary theory and philosophical Darwinism Paolo Casini in: The theory of evolution and its impact, Dordrecht : Springer.

Evolving scientific paradigms: retrospective and prospective Willis F. Overton in: Paradigms in theory construction, Dordrecht : Springer. Experience and nature: Wittgenstein reader of Dewey? Experiential evidence Norm Friesen in: Hermeneutic phenomenology in education, Dordrecht : Springer. Explicating and exemplifying empiricist and cognitivist paradigms in the study of human learning Sandra M. Loughlin , Patricia A. Alexander in: Paradigms in theory construction, Dordrecht : Springer.

Exposing the background: deep and local Daniel Hutto in: Knowing without thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Expression and objectivity in the case of wine: defending the aesthetic terroir of tastes and smells Cain Todd Rivista di estetica Grammont, D. Legrand, and P. Livet eds , Naturalizing intention in action Brian W. Failures of convergence Dennis M. Faith and affirmation Gerhard Knauss in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer.

Faith as humanity's essential communication bridge Hermann-Josef Seideneck in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. Faith, science, and philosophy Reinhard Schulz in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. Fanon and libidinal economy Derek Hook in: Re con figuring psychoanalysis, Dordrecht : Springer. First-person methods: toward an empirical phenomenology of experience Wolff-Michael Roth ed Rotterdam, SensePublishers.

Fondamenti ontologici per una scienza dei servizi Roberta Ferrario , Nicola Guarino Rivista di estetica Fool's gold? Foreword to Karl Jaspers' principles for philosophizing Hans Saner in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. Frameworking ascendency increase Stanley N. Freedom in the space of nothingness Malek K. Khazaee in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. From deep thought to digital metaphysics Barry Dainton in: Philosophy and the Hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

From parsing actions to understanding intentions Richard W. Byrne in: The symbolic species evolved, Dordrecht : Springer. From psychology to phenomenology: Franz Brentano's psychology from an empirical standpoint and contemporary philosophy of mind Biagio G Tassone Dordrecht, Springer. From reflection to refraction: on Bordwell's cinema and the viewing event John Mullarkey in: Critical communities and aesthetic practices, Dordrecht : Springer.

Fuori della persona. Fuzzy formal ontology Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh in: Soft computing in humanities and social sciences, Dordrecht : Springer. Vattimo and S. Gender in innovative techno fantasies Cathrine Hasse in: The symbolic species evolved, Dordrecht : Springer.

Gender studies, transgender studies, queer studies Eveline Kilian in: English and American studies, Stuttgart : Metzler. Genes, evolution and the development of the embryo Giuseppina Barsacchi in: The theory of evolution and its impact, Dordrecht : Springer. Genesis of a totalizing ideology: bioethics' inner hippie Griffin Trotter in: Bioethics critically reconsidered, Dordrecht : Springer.

Le Portique 29 Georges Bataille Gesellschaftskritik: philosophisch oder soziologisch? Ghosts in the machine: do the dead live on in Facebook? Globital time: time in the digital globalised age Anna Reading in: Time, media and modernity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Ground zero for a post-moral ethics in J. Ground-level intelligence: action-oriented representation and the dynamics of the background Massimiliano Cappuccio , Michael Wheeler in: Knowing without thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Habermas's social theory: the critical power of communicative rationality Maeve Cooke in: Conceptions of critique in modern and contemporary philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Harold Pinter's the homecoming through the lens of Amartya Sen's The idea of justice Emil Roy in: Art, literature, and passions of the skies, Dordrecht : Springer.

Have the humanities always been digital? Philosophique 15 Hegel - Deleuze 1 Hegel and global justice Andrew Buchwalter ed Dordrecht, Springer. Hegel and global justice: an introduction Andrew Buchwalter in: Hegel and global justice, Dordrecht : Springer. Hegel on cosmopolitanism, international relations, and the challenges of globalization Steven V.

Hicks in: Hegel and global justice, Dordrecht : Springer. Hegel on war, recognition and justice Gary Browning in: Hegel and global justice, Dordrecht : Springer. Hegel's conception of immanent critique: its sources, extent and limit Karin de Boer in: Conceptions of critique in modern and contemporary philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Hegel, civil society, and globalization Peter G. Stillman in: Hegel and global justice, Dordrecht : Springer. Hegel, global justice, and mutual recognition Andrew Buchwalter in: Hegel and global justice, Dordrecht : Springer. Hegelian recognition, critical theory, and the social sciences Jean-Philippe Deranty in: Recognition theory as social research, Dordrecht : Springer. Hello to all that: "credit crunches", "great depressions" and journalistic retrojection David Deacon in: Time, media and modernity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Herbart paradoxal? Hermeneutic phenomenology and pedagogical practice Carina Henriksson in: Hermeneutic phenomenology in education, Dordrecht : Springer. Hierarchical rituals for egalitarian societies Daniel A. Bell in: Ritual and the moral life, Dordrecht : Springer. Hierarchical structures Stanley N. Hitting the trail running: roadmaps and reflections on informal faculty mentorship experiences Shelley M. Griffin , Rodger J. Beatty in: Narrative soundings, Dordrecht : Springer. Hominid diversity and "ancestor" myths Niels Bonde in: The symbolic species evolved, Dordrecht : Springer.

Homo heuristicus and the bias—variance dilemma Henry Brighton , Gerd Gigerenzer in: Action, perception and the brain, Dordrecht : Springer. Honoring the messenger Suzanne Kirkbright in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. How is critical ontology possible?

How literature works Patrick Howard in: Hermeneutic phenomenology in education, Dordrecht : Springer. How to compare one million images? How to do things with documents Barry Smith Rivista di estetica How we think: transforming power and digital technologies in: Understanding digital humanities, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Human rights, migration, and social conflict: toward a decolonized global justice Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Humanism and behaviorism David Ryback in: Paradigms in theory construction, Dordrecht : Springer. Humanism and wars: Karl Jaspers between politics, culture, and law Chris Thornhill in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer.

Husserl and the promise of time: Subjectivity in transcendental phenomenology Nicolas de Warren Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Heidegger Jahrbuch 6 Husserl und Heidegger Iconic power: materiality and meaning in social life Jeffrey C. Iconic power and performance: the role of the critic Jeffrey C. Alexander in: Iconic power, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Iconic rituals: towards a social theory of encountering images Julia Sonnevend in: Iconic power, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Idola tribus: Lamarck, politics and religion in the early nineteenth century Pietro Corsi in: The theory of evolution and its impact, Dordrecht : Springer.

Idolatry, secularization, philosophy Michael Maidan in: Recherches levinassiennes, Leuven : Peeters. Il mondo dell'arte come istituzione sociale Tiziana Andina Rivista di estetica Il nulla nulleggia ancora Alberto Voltolini Rivista di estetica Imagination and society: the role of visual sociology Roberto Cipriani , Emanuela C.

Hoopes in: The ethics of anthropology and Amerindian research, Dordrecht : Springer. Immigrant children's bodily engagement in accessing their lived experiences of immigration Anna Kirova , Michael Emme in: Hermeneutic phenomenology in education, Dordrecht : Springer. Immortality Kjetil Rommetveit in: Sacred science? Implicit mindreading and embodied cognition J. Improving robustness of scale-free networks to message distortion Ofir Ben-Assuli , Arie Jacobi in: Knowledge and technologies in innovative information systems, Dordrecht : Springer.

In between word and image: philosophical hermeneutics, aesthetics and the inescapable Heritage of kant Nicholas Davey in: Critical communities and aesthetic practices, Dordrecht : Springer. Indigenous peoples and environmental degradation: an indigenous perspective Alberto Esquit-Choy in: The ethics of anthropology and Amerindian research, Dordrecht : Springer. Information seeking strategies in organizational information architecture Andrea Herbst , Jan vom Brocke in: Knowledge and technologies in innovative information systems, Dordrecht : Springer.

Institutionelle Erneuerung durch Fusion? Interbehaviorism Mitch J. Fryling , Linda J. Hayes in: Paradigms in theory construction, Dordrecht : Springer. Interpretations of Leibniz's mathesis universalis at the beginning of the xxth century David Rabouin in: New essays on Leibniz reception, Dordrecht : Springer. Intra-transactional interaction in internet auctions: the impact on outcomes Ananth Srinivasan , Liu Fangxing in: Knowledge and technologies in innovative information systems, Dordrecht : Springer.

Introduction Regula M. Introduction: understanding the digital humanities David M. Berry in: Understanding digital humanities, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Introduction: the sand walk on the Darwin's steps Aldo Fasolo in: The theory of evolution and its impact, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Karin de Boer , Ruth Sonderegger in: Conceptions of critique in modern and contemporary philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Introduction: a recognition-theoretical research programme for the social sciences Nicholas Smith in: Recognition theory as social research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Introduction: time, media, modernity Emily Keightley in: Time, media and modernity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Introduction Richard J. Introduction Juval Portugali in: Complexity theories of cities have come of age, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Helmut Wautischer in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Bert van Oers in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer.

Introduction — dialogues with contemporary political theorists: then and now Gary Browning , Raia Prokhovnik , Maria Dimova-Cookson in: Dialogues with contemporary political theorists, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Deacon in: The symbolic species evolved, Dordrecht : Springer. Introductory essay: the mystery of the background qua background Hubert L Dreyfus in: Knowing without thinking, Dordrecht : Springer. Revista de estud i os sobre Fichte 4 Inv i erno Iris Runge: a life at the crossroads of mathematics, science, and industry Renate Tobies Dordrecht, Springer.

Is recognition a basis for social or political thought? Is spatial awareness required for object perception? Is the human brain unique? Is there any good reason to say goodbye to "ethnomethodology"? Is there any value in Kant's account of mathematics? Isaiah Berlin: the journey of a Jewish liberal Arie M. Dubnov Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Lyotard, J. Jaspers meets Confucius Charles Courtney in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. Jaspers' Achsenzeit hypothesis: a critical reappraisal Michael Zank in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer.

Jaspers' concept of philosophical faith: a new synthesis? John Dewey, Unmodern philosophy and modern philosophy Kevin S. Joseph margolis' pragmatism between narrative and prophecy Rosa M. Journey of self-exploration: seeking understanding through musical and cultural experiences in South India Patricia E. Riley in: Narrative soundings, Dordrecht : Springer. Jugend Hartmut M. Just friends: the ethics of postmodern relationships Hugh J. Silverman in: Critical communities and aesthetic practices, Dordrecht : Springer. Lembeck, Philosophie als Zumutung?

Kant on receptivity and representation Paul Abela in: Contemporary kantian metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. Kantian friendship Gary Banham in: Critical communities and aesthetic practices, Dordrecht : Springer. Karl Jaspers: philosophical faith of a scientist S. Nassir Ghaemi in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer. Karl Jaspers' philosophical faith for the global age: the idea of civilizational continuity Joanne Miyang Cho in: Philosophical faith and the future of humanity, Dordrecht : Springer.

Karl Marx: critique as emancipatory practice Robin Celikates in: Conceptions of critique in modern and contemporary philosophy, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Kinds of objects and varieties of properties Antigone M. Nounou in: Structural realism, Dordrecht : Springer. Klippi, Carita, La vie du langage. Knotted subjectivity: on Lacan's use of knot theory in building a non-universal theory of the subject Stijn Vanheule , Abe Geldhof in: Re con figuring psychoanalysis, Dordrecht : Springer.

Knowing without thinking: mind, action, cognition and the phenomenon of the background Zdravko Radman ed Dordrecht, Springer. Knowledge and technologies in innovative information systems: 7th mediterranean conference on information systems, mcis , guimaraes, portugal, september , Strategien im Umgang mit Konfliktsituationen, dargestellt am Fallbeispiel des Projektes "Energie nachhaltig konsumieren — nachhaltige Energie konsumieren.

L'appel de la question Louis Ucciani Philosophique L'histoire de l'art prise aux mots Jan Blanc Appareil 9. Bryant, N. Srnicek, G. La critica dei filosofi analitici alla concezione tomistica dell'essere Enrico Berti Rivista di estetica La nueva Ariadna y las Ilustraciones olvidadas. La vie peut-elle se tourner contre soi? Langage, mythe et philologie dans la Philosophie des formes symboliques d'Ernst Cassirer Leopoldo Iribarren Revue germanique internationale Language as a repository of tacit knowledge Harry Collins in: The symbolic species evolved, Dordrecht : Springer.

Language, memory and loss: Kristevan psychoanalytical perspectives on intertextual connections in the work of Murdoch and banville Wendy Vaizey in: Iris Murdoch, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Lasciare tracce, controllare il mondo Alessandra Fussi Rivista di estetica Geenen in: Transnationale Vergesellschaftungen, Dordrecht : Springer. Lave and Wenger, communities of practice and disability studies Rebecca Lawthom in: Disability and social theory, Dordrecht : Springer. Law, order and freedom: a historical introduction to legal philosophy Cees Maris , Frans Jacobs ed Dordrecht, Springer.

Le devenir-monde de l'art Carole Talon-Hugon Noesis Genesis 35 Le geste linguistique Le parole dell'archivio fotografico Tiziana Serena Rivista di estetica Binswanger et H.

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Le sol classique Clara Pacquet Appareil 9. Learning in a teen garage band: a relational narrative inquiry Jane Baker in: Narrative soundings, Dordrecht : Springer. Learning to communicate about number Niko Fijma in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer. Learning to communicate in young children's classrooms Dorian de Haan in: Developmental education for young children, Dordrecht : Springer.

Leibniz baroque? The Civil War was presented as a type of Holy War against the infidels who defended a secular state. In keeping with this, Franco was hailed as a defender of the faith. He enjoyed the support of the majority of the Spanish hierarchy, with the noteworthy exception of Francesc Vidal i Barraquer, Cardinal-Archbishop of Tarragona, who protested to the Pope about the political stance of the Church in Spain.

Cooper records that, as a result, he was unacceptable in post-war Spain and did not return to his See in The first of these referred to the maintenance of the idea of unity, and another insisted on the preservation of the dogma and morals of Catholic teaching, although it did state that tolerance must be extended to the Protestant and Muslim religions.

However, in June , this tolerance of other religions was deemed to have been forfeited because of Protestant support for the Popular Front. Harsh punishments were threatened for breaches of Church—state rules. In contrast to the nationalism found elsewhere in Europe, the nationalism of the Francoists demanded the loyalty of the people to a Catholic, rather than a secular, state. By allying itself so closely to the Roman Catholic Church, the Franco regime won the loyalty of many of the Church faithful. Moreover, the Roman Catholic Church lent to it the good will and moral authority it enjoyed among vast numbers of people both nationally and internationally.

This support allowed Franco to claim that he was serving both God and country. However, Vatican II did have an impact on the regime. It is clear that in his creation of a mythical past for Spain and the identification of an essential Spanishness that had been betrayed by the liberals and the secular Republicans, Franco did indeed attempt this. Of course, the contradiction in the myth was evident from the outset. The emergence of the myth of a crusade was already evident, and the Muslims were not to feature in the mythical raza of Francoist Spain.

It provided the regime with support and legitimacy it might otherwise have lacked, having overthrown a democratically elected government. By arguing that the people were weak and in need of protection, leadership and salvation, the regime defended its paternalistic attitude and autocratic rule. Indeed, dependence on a patriarchal and more knowledgeable authority was encouraged by both Francoist and Catholic ideologies: both demanded the ceding of responsibility to a higher power.

An acceptance of submission was encouraged and rationalized by the argument that it was destined or preordained, and protection was offered in exchange for freedom and independence. Both promised suffering now for sins of the past and gave 9 Anthony D. Hutchinson and A. Smith Oxford: Oxford University Press, , pp. Suffering and humility were praised by the Church—state alliance as virtues of the Spanish people in the face of internal hardship and external opposition; a myth of national martyrdom encouraged the Spanish people to feel triumphant in their isolation and subjugation.

Y no nos dio resultado. Cuando otros van hacia la democracia, nosotros ya estamos de vuelta. With the collusion of the Roman Catholic Church, the regime was able to introduce censorship and sanctions, which silenced the dissenter in the name of the common good and of liberty. Ley de Prensa. BOE, no. It no longer had to pay taxes and was given grants to construct churches. It was judged to be above the law as it applied to the ordinary citizens of the state and, while its clergy were employed as censors on Government Boards, some of its own publications were not subject to censorship.

Nor could a priest be charged with a criminal offence without the consent of his religious superiors. Catholic marriages were the only ones recognized in the New State, and divorce, which had been legal during the years of the Second Republic, was outlawed. Aside from the Church publications and influence on censorship, some of the leading intellectuals of the day were members of Opus Dei.

The Catholic viewpoint on censorship is a version of the common good argument. It allows for intervention by the Church to eliminate error and secure the victory of truth. The Catholic Church maintains that societies are formed naturally, as is the institution of authority, elected from and by the members of a society to make decisions and resolve differences. This society is God-given, Ley 18 marzo , de Prensa e Imprenta, p. Fusi, Franco, p. The state, it is claimed, has the right and duty to exercise authority and coercion in the name of the common good.

The premise is that a good act generated by fear or coercion may eventually lead to a belief in the virtue of this good act and the will to do this good act voluntarily. Therefore, the argument goes, the initial application of threat and coercion is justified. It might be suggested that this would be an abuse of power and in such a case the Catholic justification is not applicable. Moreover, it did so with the full support and collusion of the Catholic Church. The presence of Roman Catholic clergy among the censors on the state boards lent these bodies a certain degree of legitimacy. It allowed the regime to use the Catholic argument that it was not protecting itself by silencing certain voices, but rather that it was defending the interests of the citizens who were somehow threatened by such material.

Church influence can be clearly seen in the censorship legislation of the Franco regime. Gardiner S. The Church claimed that it had a right and duty to control literature, and each diocese was to have its own appointed clerical censor. Canon of the Code of Canon Law gave the Church the right to ban books as it saw fit. Possession, trading, or reading of works cited in the Index was punishable by excommunication, but, as always, the moral elite could obtain permission to examine these texts for scholarly purposes and survive with their souls unscathed. The Church also played a significant role in the censorship of the theatre, and the legislation is clearly influenced by Catholic teaching on morals.

The former were judged to be acceptable to a wide audience and the latter a serious threat to its moral well-being.

Publicaciones de la facultad

This was seen as necessary, as the Church guidelines for censorship were more severe in some respects than those of the regime, which were occasionally influenced more by political expediency than by Catholic moral teaching. I: Another important ideological state apparatus was the educational system. Redmond A. Burke, C. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co. The report is of further interest because of its insistence that the MIT is not guilty of apertura and also for the distinction it makes between Church and state censorship.

Its significance changed from the late s, when the universities became the sites for an ideological battle against the regime. Initially the situation was quite different, however, and the education system proved a useful tool for social control. The regime recognized early on that it had to control the educational institutions and sought to secure its influence on them through legislation. The education system, in line with both Catholic and Francoist ideology, taught the importance of family, Church and regime to the stability and peace of the nation.

History books were rewritten to discredit Republicans and to laud the imperial tradition followed by Franco. Revising history in an attempt to control the collective memory, the regime sought to determine the future. The SEU was a pro-Francoist body and also had a role as campus guard. The creation of the Milicia Universitaria fulfilled the requirements of an ideological apparatus, as it allowed students to do their military service in an elite group, where they were separate from the ordinary workers and taught different know-how for their positions within the social order.

When students reorganized the FUE clandestinely in Madrid and Barcelona in the s, they were soon discovered and many arrests were made; some of those involved left Spain. While no dates were given, the stress on fascism and imperialism would imply that these were from relatively early school texts. In , University Police were introduced, and they remained permanently on campus during the unrest.

Giner points out that by demonizing Communism, the Francoists had cited a cohesive and welldeveloped alternative ideology, which many students and young liberals were attracted to as the antithesis of Francoism. The fact that many opposition groups were based outside Spain meant that they were often out of touch with the reality of the situation there. The education system was only one of the apparatuses the regime sought to control.

The ideological role of the media was also recognized and acted upon by the Nationalists. Legislation was introduced to control the press prior to the end of the Civil War, and this was later built upon in the aftermath of the Nationalist victory. The state not only controlled the flow of information through the national news agency CIFRA and the international agency EFE, but also actively involved itself in the training of journalists who, like university teachers, were required to swear a pledge of allegiance to the regime upon graduation.

Unlike Fabra, the previous international agency in Spain, the regime ensured that EFE was Spanish owned and thus protected from foreign interference. In the early years, the few news publications that were permitted were Nationalist. There was no forum for debate, and the official version of events went unchallenged.

Later, specific bodies were created to deal with each type of censorship. Manufacturing Consent: The Mythology of the Raza It is clear that in order to be successful, the regime needed to justify and legitimate its rule so as to win enough support or apathy to ensure its continuation. This it did in a variety of ways. In addition, it engaged in a process of nationalization that stressed the unity and stability of society, while simultaneously strengthening its own hold on the state apparatuses.

Core values were presented as fact or natural, and alternatives to them rendered unthinkable. Contradictory ideas and values were discredited, and simultaneously myths were created to reconcile the reality to ideological promise by offering imaginary solutions to real contradictions. By assimilating some members of the subjugated masses into the dominant group, the latter not only can give the appearance of being representative, but can also deprive the opposition of potential leaders. At various stages certain Monarchists, aperturistas and Falangists were given government or administrative positions in an effort to appease those groups in society, who, having some degree of representation, were thus less likely to challenge the leadership.

Those upholding the ruling ideology were concerned with conditioning people to believe and accept its values but were also willing to use sanctions to suppress any opposition to them. Yet the ruling elite did not simply dupe people into believing what was false by mystification; it also expended much energy in its attempts to justify and legitimate the social order.

One of the attractions of the Francoist ideology was the appearance of a cohesive, unified and stable society. Many people accepted the myth that they were represented as a nation by the regime. Franco treated Spain as a nation-state, making appeals to the people in the name of the Nuevo Estado; he called on those loyal to the nation, that is Spain, to demonstrate this loyalty by fealty to the regime. The regime also justified its actions in the name of the common good, a term cleverly appropriated by the regime to protect its interests. Furthermore, the regime was described as an organic democracy, a term that implies representation, although in reality it meant nothing of the sort.

Put simply, it purifies them, it makes them innocent and bases them in nature or eternity, it gives them a clarity that is not that of an explanation, but rather of a certified fact. The reality of the dubious vote was not acknowledged: no opposition had been allowed and the ballot was not secret.

Another feature of a successful ideology is that the subjects will believe their submission to the system is freely chosen, at least to a degree. For many who might have doubts, but who are fearful, it makes a disagreeable situation seem both tolerable and reasonable. Desires are manipulated and controlled by the specification of what is good, what is right and what is attractive, as well as their opposites. Finally, the ruling ideology also defines what is possible and what is impossible in the social order, thereby controlling ambitions, hopes and fears.

Some freedoms are occasionally granted, and these seem to confirm the illusion of free will but are in fact controlled by the rulers. When those involved tried to take the protest further, they were soon stopped and the illusion of liberalization was shattered. Fraga was not loved by members of the intellectual community in Spain, who were generally unimpressed by the surface apertura he introduced.

Franco, p. However, other letters of protest, some of which refer to the treatment of miners, as well as issues of freedom of expression, are available for consultation. Nationalism was another important feature in the myth of representation. The nascent regime quickly set about nationalizing institutions in Spain, including education and the press, and instilling the values of the regime in the practices and rituals of these institutions. This allowed the rulers to claim that their ideology reflected not merely the narrow views of the ruling elite, but also the institutions of society, and therefore society itself.

Its success in doing so depended to some extent on the provision of material benefits for its supporters. The regime rationalized its ideology, offering reasons for certain values contained therein. For example, anti-Communism was presented as a positive value in opposition to those who would seek to threaten the mythical peace, order and stability of the regime. It helped that an anti-Communist ideology coincided with the self-interest of many landowners and industrialists who welcomed this rationalization by the regime.

Similarly, the punishment of Republicans was justified by the regime for the sake of society, peace and order. In reality, it also materially benefited many Nationalists, as those who had fought for the peace and order of the nation could hope to be treated more favourably than the Republicans. Of course, another reason why ruling ideologies are successful is simply because they are defended by the most powerful people in society in whose material interests it is to seek to reproduce the social order.

Another reason that ideology is successful is, as John Breuilly highlights, that it provides answers, albeit ones that falsify or distort reality to some degree. Ley 18 marzo , de Prensa e Imprenta, p. Articles 16 to 18 stipulate that the press is to be controlled by Spanish nationals, resident in Spain. It arises out of the need to make sense of complex social and political arrangements. Nonetheless, it is unlikely that the Franco regime went unchallenged by the majority simply for ease of life without responsibility; the regime ensured that citizens were also aware of the negative consequences of any challenge to its hegemony.

The dominant ideology offered more than the views and values of the ruling elite. It also defined the various roles and relations within society and between the ruling elite and its subjects. This in turn tends to preclude a revolutionary response. Althusser suggested that once certain material practices are part of the institutions of a society, they become normal and naturalized; people will experience and live according to the ruling ideology without being aware that they are doing so.

While this is certainly plausible to a degree, it would seem to suggest that people neither think for themselves nor question their political environment. It also ignores the role of fear in the upholding of a ruling ideology. It is likely that, rather than being completely ignorant of the aims and machinations of the ruling power, people resigned themselves to the status quo and, for as long as they were not directly adversely affected by its repressive forces, remained apathetic.

Breuilly claims that political ideology can be popularized and made acceptable by simplification, repetition and definition. Not surprisingly, there are many examples of this in Francoist Spain. Simplifications included the creation of national stereotypes of the noble, loyal raza, of the unnatural, unpatriotic opposition and of the hardworking, representative leadership. These stereotypes coupled with messages about progress, the common good and the enemy were repeated in the media, at rallies, and incorporated into ceremonies, rituals and anthems.

Such ceremonies, along with symbols such as the flag, notes and coins, as well as the renaming of public spaces and the erection of statues and monuments, gave the ideology concrete form and helped to legitimate it in the eyes of the populace. Under Fraga, the diatribes against the Communists were replaced by positive economic messages. In fact, apathy in the face of a dominant and unjust ruling ideology is one of the reactions most criticized by Buero in his dramatic work. Yet it is interesting to note that the dramatist himself was accused of apathy and worse in his own relationship with the regime.

This concern for image even extended to his own appearance. The regime could not convert the enemies of its ideology to consent or apathy; instead it portrayed them as enemies of the people and sought to eliminate them from the discourse. The omnipresence of repressive state apparatuses led to a certain sense of fear in society and discouraged many people from challenging the dominant ideology. The regime would at times acknowledge repression or state intervention in the private lives of citizens, but either blamed an outside group or claimed that it was a necessary short-term measure in the interests of national security and for the benefit of the population.

Psychological needs were also met in recognition of their importance in securing the acquiescence of the population to the ruling ideology. Perhaps the greatest attraction of a successful ruling ideology is that it offers people an identity and a recognized role in society, and it claims to do so in the name of freedom. It supplies peoples and persons with an important commodity, identity. The importance of myth in the naturalization of the Francoist ideology is difficult to overstate. Labanyi highlights how autocrats incorporated myth into the official culture, thus appropriating the symbolic truth it is presumed to contain, 44 45 Orden 15 julio , Censura, p.

She also stresses the use of myth in the creation of a national identity. It also enabled the regime to portray the opposition as a threat to this identity and nature. Underlying this, of course, was the threat that those who disagreed with, or challenged, the dominant group would also be dismissed as anti-Spanish. In myth the Nationalist victory was inevitable, essential and the restoration of a natural order disturbed by the Second Republic.

Myth, like ideology, of which it is a part, may contain some truth, but it is exaggerated or distorted, and this exaggeration is given the appearance of fact or nature. As John Breuilly contends, the plausibility of nationalist ideology arises from the fact that at its core is an authentic intellectual response to the problematic one of state—society relations. He goes on to explain its success: By seeming to abolish the distinctions between culture and politics, society and state, private and public, the nationalist has access to a whole range of sentiments, idioms and practices which would hitherto have been regarded as irrelevant to politics but are now turned into the values underlying political action.

All linguistic expression, religious practice and territorial claims that threatened the unity of the Nationalist—Catholic state were outlawed. As early as May , the Ministerio de Interior issued an order in which article 1 prohibited the use of languages other than Castilian in all dealings with the ministry. Myth stresses areas of common interest and creates or emphasizes common enemies. The law went on to claim that the new press under the guidance of the new regime would be based on truth and responsibility, again assuming that this nobility of purpose was not present in the earlier press.

It further states that the press was to be returned its dignity and its prestige, an idea that not only was in keeping with the mythology of the new regime, but also managed to damn the old. Paradoxically, the freedom of the press was to be guaranteed by the suppression of democracy, or democratic libertarianism, as it was termed in the legislation. In short, then, the Ley de Prensa claims Spain, truth and righteousness for the Nationalists while dismissing the other as anti-Spanish and finally, and entirely without irony, it advocates censorship in the name of freedom of the press.

Most ideologists have recognized the necessity of revising or falsifying history in order to prove or support an official version of events. In fact, where possible, they normally attempt to establish continuity with a suitable historic past. Franco transformed history into myth, by revising and erasing facts for the purpose of gaining support for his dictatorship.

By adapting the past to fit the needs of the present, the regime sought to give the appearance of being a natural link in a long chain of historical events and a solution to past errors. Events that might have embarrassed the regime were written out of history in a bout of political amnesia. He pointed out that in a speech in June , Franco expressed a desire to remove the nineteenth century from the history of Spain.

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By subverting these carefully constructed myths, they challenged the ideology that the myths purported to legitimate. Spanish Falangism was similar to the fascist ideologies in Italy and Germany. It was prepared to lead the way. The myth of nationalism, which was an important part of Falangism later incorporated into Francoism, allowed the rulers to contend that the Spain they claimed to represent was unified in its culture, its homeland and its essential values. All this, despite being a state established in the aftermath of a bloody and bitter fratricidal conflict and a state that institutionalized the divisions between the victors and the vanquished for many years.

The idea of a pure Spanish raza was constantly stressed. It would, however, under the leadership of Franco, be restored to its destiny as a glorious, noble and respected people.

  1. Gadget (Terran Times).
  2. Publicaciones de la facultad;
  3. Caregiving in The Comfort of Home for Multiple Sclerosis: A Guide for Caregivers?

Yet the raza was not to be trusted with political choices or democracy, but rather encouraged to believe that social change could only come about through faith in the leadership. The paternalistic Franco regime took it upon itself to define and legislate for the truth and ensured that its determination of contentment and well-being would take precedence over autonomy. It also chose to assume that individual members of the raza did not understand what was good for them, or that even if they did they did not understand how best to achieve it.

It was inferred that they required the help of the state to discover their best interests and to avoid irrational actions; thus, the ruling body justified the restrictions it imposed on freedom and self-determination. Festivals and rituals, which stressed the purity, Catholicism and noble simplicity of the Spanish race, were encouraged under Franco. Labanyi argues that the cult of folklore in Spain under Franco served as a form of social control, as it encouraged faith in a myth and discouraged change and modernity.

Even football played an important role in the reinforcement of the nationalist myth, particularly with the success of Real Madrid in the s. The successes of the team became a source of national pride and, in the minds of nationalists at least, an expression of Spanish superiority. The reality of the situation, which was a team containing many non-nationals, was not allowed to interfere with the myth of Spanish supremacy.

In Textos de doctrina, p. This had the twofold purpose of distracting people from their present hardship and reinforcing the myth of a noble race set to recapture the glory of the past by obeying present-day leaders. Romantic fiction and Hollywood fantasies were also deemed acceptable, while more avant-garde and controversial authors were censored.

The figure of the valiant and noble leader formed a meaningful part of the raza myth. Preston also recounts an episode that again demonstrates a desire to highlight or invent the noble origins of the natural leader. To do this, he reconstructed his own history, eliminating any embarrassing or unworthy incidents and presenting himself as a selfless, reluctant hero upon whom power had been thrust and who only obeyed the call of duty in his struggle for the greater good and the dignity of the Patria.

He claimed that he was not interested in power and that he was motivated by patriotism alone. Therefore, he argued, the people should be willing to support him in his patriotic efforts, as he was serving them and their interests. Desde muy joven echaron sobre mis hombros responsabilidades superiores a mi edad y a mi empleo. In fact, Raza can be read as a guide to Francoist ideology.

It presents the values he sought to propagate and the alternative ideology he despised. The film was, as the name suggests, a return to origins and an attempt to define the true Spanish race, while also making very clear that those responsible for the fiasco of could not be classed as part of this raza of proud, unified, noble and obedient people. Similarly, Republicans and democrats were portrayed as obstacles on the path to the national destiny of Spain. In the film the Nationalists fight the Civil War for the salvation of Spain, not for political power, and the support they received from the Roman Catholic Church is stressed.

Censorship as an Ideological Weapon Toda la libertad para la verdad; ninguna libertad para el error. The censorship legislation stressed unity and nationalization and reinforced the ruling ideology while denying the opposition spokespersons the opportunity to challenge it. This was an emotional rather than a logical battle, concerned with the propagation of myth and the denial of history and reality. Censorship was often justified on the grounds of the protection of internal and external security, but when examined it is clear that the legislation in question was formulated to defend the dominant ideology.

Anything that might contradict or seriously challenge it was forbidden. The regime was acutely aware of the fact that words could be lent ideological meaning and so wished to control the language of others. While its opponents argued that censorship interfered with their right to freedom of expression, the regime argued that censorship defended certain essential, core values and protected the weak in society. It was used as a tool of intimidation, aimed at isolating the dissenting voice, which in turn was seen as a threat to the national or common good and was therefore to be suppressed.

The problem is that where prior censorship is concerned, the judgement is always based on a subjective estimate of possible damage, and the danger is that a censor will not jeopardize his own position by underestimating the impact of the work. The myth of the raza sought to convince people that they needed protection and leadership and that their leaders were acting in their best interests.

The nascent regime employed the media and culture both to negate oppositional ideology and to establish its own. During the Civil War, all Marxist, socialist, anarchist and separatist literary material had to be delivered to the Nationalist authorities within four days of their arrival in Republican zones. Libraries, both public and private, were destroyed, and book distributors and retailers were required to submit their merchandise to the authorities for inspection.

Prior censorship was established on 18 July Governors were ordered to destroy all Communist or socialist books found in libraries and schools. The only books to be permitted in schools were those in line with the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church. This delegation was located in Salamanca, and part of its role was to establish censorship guidelines.

The law attempted to justify censorship by stating that it offered protection from democratic licentiousness and created a press to serve the national interest. Article 20 listed the sanctions the Minister could take against an editor, journalist or newspaper. These ranged in severity from an unspecified fine, to the removal of the editor with or without the simultaneous removal of his name from the Register of Journalists, to seizure of the newspaper in question.

Authors and editors were responsible for ensuring the deposit of works for pre-publication censorship. The Minister controlled paper quotas also, so that a text could be held up indefinitely owing to paper shortage. Foreign manuscripts were also to be strictly controlled. It was hailed by some as the beginning of the apertura and the democratization of the press and publication laws. The disappearance of prior censorship seemed to herald a new, more liberal era and a freer press, but it did not fulfil the initial hopes that it inspired.

The introduction of voluntary censorship as a substitute for prior censorship, along with sanctions to be imposed on erring editors and writers, created new problems for both. Moreover, the law could provide an excuse for reprisals based on the latent or manifest political sympathies of the author, publisher or retailer. The report also claims that the rise in editorial output was a direct result of the law. However, the law remained controversial. Hamaca An examination of this legislation demonstrates how closely linked were Francoist and Catholic ideologies.

In the name of the common good, all justifications of suicide, mercy killings, revenge, duelling, divorce, adultery, illicit sexual relations and prostitution were prohibited. Article 8 also declared that any attack on the family or marriage, institutions dear both to Franco and to the Roman Catholic Church, was prohibited.

The moral consequences of evil were to be portrayed, and where the film or play was directed at an audience of minors, the legislation stipulated that the wrongdoer must either be punished or be repentant at the end. Brutality, sexual perversions, blasphemy, pornography, subversion and attractive portrayals of alcoholism were taboo; any language that might offend against good taste, and any images or suggestive allusions that might provoke base passions, were prohibited, as were any detailed accounts of offences that could be used as guides to committing them.

Patricia W. The people could not be trusted to judge for themselves what was good or bad, right or wrong. The moral judgement of officials such as Arias Salgado was the only acceptable one. Nevertheless, the people and the media were free to express the correct public opinion, in line with the teaching of the regime and the Roman Catholic Church. Therefore, the state that sought to influence the opinions of the people was in fact protecting them from a greater danger.

Yet what is classed here as social censorship seems to include all that the regime would like society to censor. However, he failed to question the validity of a system that invited such a high number of transgressions. Censorship, he claimed, simply protected information and avoided the propagation of lies. Thus answerable to God alone, it could do as it pleased. In a speech delivered at the first Consejo Nacional de Prensa in Alicante in , Arias Salgado defined the common good as: un bien material y moral a la vez, y principalmente moral.

The censor simply wishes to protect weak members of society from the negative influence of others; censorship thus viewed becomes a positive action for the common good. Arias Salgado, Textos de doctrina, pp. A censor must always seek to identify the moral lesson in a piece and judge it by this. The censor, often a writer or a journalist himself, was often not a particularly powerful person in the administrative system. In an early article, which personified censorship in the form of the scrupulous and respectable Don Homobono, Buero attacked the petty-minded censor.

However, unlike the low-level censors, those who controlled the ministries in charge of propaganda and censorship were very powerful indeed. The changes in the censorship personnel at the highest levels reflect the adjustments made to the ideology of the regime in its efforts to ensure the stability and reproduction of the social order. He was also fanatically anti-Communist and loath to discard Civil War rhetoric. Arias Salgado, like Fraga after him, justified the nationalization of the Spanish Press.

Compared to the ultra-conservative Arias Salgado, Fraga offered a more dynamic and progressive image. With the advent of widespread computing and availability of open source programs to perform many different programming tasks, nowadays there is a trend in Statistics to program tailor made applications for non statistical customers in various areas. This is an alternative to having a large statistical package with many functions many of which never are used.

Consonance Analysis is a useful numerical and graphical exploratory approach for evaluating the consistency of the measurements and the panel of people involved in sensory evaluation. It makes use of several uni and multivariate techniques either graphical or analytical, particularly Principal Components Analysis. The package is implemented in a graphical user interface in order to get a user friendly package.

Definitive screening designs DSDs are a class of experimental designs that allow the estimation of linear, quadratic, and interaction effects with little experimental effort if there is effect sparsity. Many industrial experiments involve nonnormal responses. Generalized linear models GLMs are a useful alternative for analyzing these kind of data. The analysis of GLMs is based on asymptotic theory, something very debatable, for example, in the case of the DSD with only 13 experimental runs.

So far, analysis of DSDs considers a normal response. In this work, we show a five-step strategy that makes use of tools coming from the Bayesian approach to analyze this kind of experiment when the response is nonnormal. We consider the case of binomial, gamma, and Poisson responses without having to resort to asymptotic approximations.

We use posterior odds that effects are active and posterior probability intervals for the effects and use them to evaluate the significance of the effects. We also combine the results of the Bayesian procedure with the lasso estimation procedure to enhance the scope of the method. It is not uncommon to deal with very small experiments in practice. For example, if the experiment is conducted on the production process, it is likely that only a very few experimental runs will be allowed.

If testing involves the destruction of expensive experimental units, we might only have very small fractions as experimental plans. In this paper, we will consider the analysis of very small factorial experiments with only four or eight experimental runs. In addition, the methods presented here could be easily applied to larger experiments.

A Daniel plot of the effects to judge significance may be useless for this type of situation. Instead, we will use different tools based on the Bayesian approach to judge significance. The first tool consists of the computation of the posterior probability that each effect is significant. The second tool is referred to in Bayesian analysis as the posterior distribution for each effect. Combining these tools with the Daniel plot gives us more elements to judge the signiicance of an effect.

Because, in practice, the response may not necessarily be normally distributed, we will extend our approach to the generalized linear model setup. By simulation, we will show that not only in the case of discrete responses and very small experiments, the usual large sample approach for modeling generalized linear models may produce a very biased and variable estimators, but also that the Bayesian approach provides a very sensible results.

Inference for quantile regression parameters presents two problems. First, it is computationally costly because estimation requires optimising a non-differentiable objective function which is a formidable numerical task, specially with many number of observations and regressors. Second, it is controversial because standard asymptotic inference requires the choice of smoothing parameters and different choices may lead to different conclusions.

Bootstrap methods solve the latter problem at the price of enlarging the former. We give a theoretical justification for a new inference method consisting of the construction of asymptotic pivots based on a small number of bootstrap replications. We show its usefulness to draw inferences on linear or non-linear functions of the parameters of quantile regression models.

The existing methods for analyzing unreplicated fractional factorial experiments that do not contemplate the possibility of outliers in the data have a poor performance for detecting the active effects when that contingency becomes a reality. There are some methods to detect active effects under this experimental setup that consider outliers. We propose a new procedure based on robust regression methods to estimate the effects that allows for outliers.

We perform a simulation study to compare its behavior relative to existing methods and find that the new method has a very competitive or even better power. The relative power improves as the contamination and size of outliers increase when the number of active effects is up to four. The paper presents the asymptotic theory of the efficient method of moments when the model of interest is not correctly specified. The paper assumes a sequence of independent and identically distributed observations and a global misspecification.

It is found that the limiting distribution of the estimator is still asymptotically normal, but it suffers a strong impact in the covariance matrix. A consistent estimator of this covariance matrix is provided. The large sample distribution on the estimated moment function is also obtained.

These results are used to discuss the situation when the moment conditions hold but the model is misspecified.

It also is shown that the overidentifying restrictions test has asymptotic power one whenever the limit moment function is different from zero. It is also proved that the bootstrap distributions converge almost surely to the previously mentioned distributions and hence they could be used as an alternative to draw inferences under misspecification. Interestingly, it is also shown that bootstrap can be reliably applied even if the number of bootstrap replications is very small.

It is well known that outliers or faulty observations affect the analysis of unreplicated factorial experiments. This work proposes a method that combines the rank transformation of the observations, the Daniel plot and a formal statistical testing procedure to assess the significance of the effects. It is shown, by means of previous theoretical results cited in the literature, examples and a Monte Carlo study, that the approach is helpful in the presence of outlying observations. The simulation study includes an ample set of alternative procedures that have been published in the literature to detect significant effects in unreplicated experiments.

The Monte Carlo study also, gives evidence that using the rank transformation as proposed, provides two advantages: keeps control of the experimentwise error rate and improves the relative power to detect active factors in the presence of outlying observations. Most of the inferential results are based on the assumption that the user has a "random" sample, by this it is usually understood that the observations are a realization from a set of independent identically distributed random variables.

However most of the time this is not true mainly for two reasons: one, the data are not obtained by means of a probabilistic sampling scheme from the population, the data are just gathered as they becomes available or in the best of the cases using some kind of control variables and quota sampling. For an excellent discussion about the kind of considerations that should be made in the first situation see Hahn and Meeker and a related comment in Aguirre For the second problem there is a book about the topic in Skinner et a1. In this paper we consider the problem of evaluating the effect of sampling complexity on Pearson's Chi-square and other alternative tests for goodness of fit for proportions.

Out of this work come up several adjustments to Pearson's test, namely: Wald type tests, average eigenvalue correction and Satterthwaite type correction. There is a more recent and general resampling approach given in Sitter , but it was not pursued in this study. Sometimes data analysis using the usual parametric techniques produces misleading results due to violations of the underlying assumptions, such as outliers or non-constant variances.

In particular, this could happen in unreplicated factorial or fractional factorial experiments. To help in this situation alternative analyses have been proposed. For example Box and Meyer give a Bayesian analysis allowing for possibly faulty observations in un replicated factorials and the well known Box-Cox transformation can be used when there is a change in dispersion.

This paper presents an analysis based on the rank transformation that deals with the above problems. The analysis is simple to use and can be implemented with a general purpose statistical computer package. The procedure is illustrated with examples from the literature. A theoretical justification is outlined at the end of the paper. The article considers the problem of choosing between two possibly nonlinear models that have been fitted to the same data using M-estimation methods.

An asymptotically normally distributed lest statistics using a Monte Carlo study. We found that the presence of a competitive model either in the null or the alternative hypothesis affects the distributional properties of the tests, and that in the case that the data contains outlying observations the new procedure had a significantly higher power that the rest of the test. Fuller , Anderson , and Hannan introduce infinite moving average models as the limit in the quadratic mean of a sequence of partial sums, and Fuller shows that if the assumption of independence of the addends is made then the limit almost surely holds.

This note shows that without the assumption of independence, the limit holds with probability one. Moreover, the proofs given here are easier to teach. A test for the problem or choosing between several nonnested nonlinear regression models simultaneously is presented. The test does not require an explicit specification of a parametric family of distributions for the error term and has a closed form. The asymptotic dislribution of the generalized Cox test for choosing between two multivariate, nonlinear regression models in implicit form is derived.

The data is assumed to be generated by a model that need not be either the null or the non-null model. Some investigations of these characteristics are included. The idea is to replace an analytical computation of the expectation of the Cox difference with a bootstrap estimate. In many Solvency and Basel loss data, there are thresholds or deductibles that affect the analysis capability.

On the other hand, the Birnbaum-Saunders model has received great attention during the last two decades and it can be used as a loss distribution. In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of deductibles using a truncated version of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. The probability density function, cumulative distribution function, and moments of this distribution are obtained. In addition, properties regularly used in insurance industry, such as multiplication by a constant inflation effect and reciprocal transformation, are discussed.

Furthermore, a study of the behavior of the risk rate and of risk measures is carried out. Moreover, estimation aspects are also considered in this work. Finally, an application based on real loss data from a commercial bank is conducted. This paper proposes two new estimators for determining the number of factors r in static approximate factor models. We exploit the well-known fact that the r largest eigenvalues of the variance matrix of N response variables grow unboundedly as N increases, while the other eigenvalues remain bounded.

The new estimators are obtained simply by maximizing the ratio of two adjacent eigenvalues. Our simulation results provide promising evidence for the two estimators. We study a modification of the Luce rule for stochastic choice which admits the possibility of zero probabilities. In any given menu, the decision maker uses the Luce rule on a consideration set, potentially a strict subset of the menu. Without imposing any structure on how the consideration sets are formed, we characterize the resulting behavior using a single axiom.

Our result offers insight into special cases where consideration sets are formed under various restrictions. Purpose— This paper summarizes the findings of a research project aimed at benchmarking the environmental sustainability practices of the top Mexican companies. The survey also explored how the adoption of environmental sustainability practices relates to the competitiveness of these firms. Findings— The results suggest that Mexican companies are very active in the various areas of business where environmental sustainability is relevant. Because the manufacturing sector is significantly overrepresented in the sample and because of its importance in addressing issues of environmental sustainability, when appropriate, specific results for this sector are reported and contrasted to the overall sample.

Practical implications— The vast majority of these firms see adopting environmental sustainability practices as being profitable and think this will be even more important in the future. In Mexico, one might expect that the same would be true, but only anecdotal evidence was heretofore available. We derive optimal consumption and portfolio policies that are robust to uncertainty about the hard-to-estimate drift rate, jump intensity and jump size parameters.

We also provide a semi-closed form formula for the detection-error probability and compare various portfolio holding strategies, including robust and non-robust policies. Our quantitative analysis shows that ignoring uncertainty leads to significant wealth loss for the investor. We exploit the manifold increase in homicides in —11 in Mexico resulting from its war on organized drug traffickers to estimate the effect of drug-related homicides on housing prices.

We use an unusually rich data set that provides national coverage of housing prices and homicides and exploits within-municipality variations. We find that the impact of violence on housing prices is borne entirely by the poor sectors of the population. An increase in homicides equivalent to 1 standard deviation leads to a 3 percent decrease in the price of low-income housing. This paper examines foreign direct investment FDI in the Hungarian economy in the period of post-Communist transition since Hungary took a quite aggressive approach in welcoming foreign investment during this period and as a result had the highest per capita FDI in the region as of We discuss the impact of FDI in terms of strategic intent, i.

The effect of these two kinds of FDI is contrasted by examining the impact of resource seeking FDI in manufacturing sectors and market serving FDI in service industries. In the case of transition economies, we argue that due to the strategic intent, resource seeking FDI can imply a short-term impact on economic development whereas market serving FDI strategically implies a long-term presence with increased benefits for the economic development of a transition economy. Our focus is that of market serving FDI in the Hungarian banking sector, which has brought improved service and products to multinational and Hungarian firms.

This has been accompanied by the introduction of innovative financial products to the Hungarian consumer, in particular consumer credit including mortgage financing. However, the latter remains an underserved segment with much growth potential. For public policy in Hungary and other transition economies, we conclude that policymakers should consider the strategic intent of FDI in order to maximize its benefits in their economies. We propose a general framework for extracting rotation invariant features from images for the tasks of image analysis and classification.

Our framework is inspired in the form of the Zernike set of orthogonal functions. It provides a way to use a set of one-dimensional functions to form an orthogonal set over the unit disk by non-linearly scaling its domain, and then associating it an exponential term. When the images are projected into the subspace created with the proposed framework, the rotations in the image affect only the exponential term while the value of the orthogonal functions serve as rotation invariant features.

We exemplify our framework using the Haar wavelet functions to extract features from several thousand images of symbols. We then use the features in an OCR experiment to demonstrate the robustness of the method. In this paper we explore the use of orthogonal functions as generators of representative, compact descriptors of image content. In Image Analysis and Pattern Recognition such descriptors are referred to as image features, and there are some useful properties they should possess such as rotation invariance and the capacity to identify different instances of one class of images.

We exemplify our algorithmic methodology using the family of Daubechies wavelets, since they form an orthogonal function set. We benchmark the quality of the image features generated by doing a comparative OCR experiment with three different sets of image features. Our algorithm can use a wide variety of orthogonal functions to generate rotation invariant features, thus providing the flexibility to identify sets of image features that are best suited for the recognition of different classes of images.

When analyzing catastrophic risk, traditional measures for evaluating risk, such as the probable maximum loss PML , value at risk VaR , tail-VaR, and others, can become practically impossible to obtain analytically in certain types of insurance, such as earthquake, and certain types of reinsurance arrangements, specially non-proportional with reinstatements. Given the available information, it can be very difficult for an insurer to measure its risk exposure.

This effect can be assessed mathematically. The PML is defined in terms of a very extreme quantile. The resulting reinsurance structures will then be very complicated to analyze and to evaluate their mitigation or transfer effects analytically, so it may be necessary to use alternative approaches, such as Monte Carlo simulation methods.

This is what we do in this paper in order to measure the effect of a complex reinsurance treaty on the risk profile of an insurance company. We compute the pure risk premium, PML as well as a host of results: impact on the insured portfolio, risk transfer effect of reinsurance programs, proportion of times reinsurance is exhausted, percentage of years it was necessary to use the contractual reinstatements, etc.

Since the estimators of quantiles are known to be biased, we explore the alternative of using an Extreme Value approach to complement the analysis. The need to estimate future claims has led to the development of many loss reserving techniques. There are two important problems that must be dealt with in the process of estimating reserves for outstanding claims: one is to determine an appropriate model for the claims process, and the other is to assess the degree of correlation among claim payments in different calendar and origin years.

We approach both problems here. On the one hand we use a gamma distribution to model the claims process and, in addition, we allow the claims to be correlated. We follow a Bayesian approach for making inference with vague prior distributions. The methodology is illustrated with a real data set and compared with other standard methods.

Consider a random sample X1, X2,. Only the sample size, mean and range are recorded and it is necessary to estimate the unknown population mean and standard deviation. In this paper the estimation of the mean and standard deviation is made from a Bayesian perspective by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo MCMC algorithm to simulate samples from the intractable joint posterior distribution of the mean and standard deviation. The proposed methodology is applied to simulated and real data. This paper is concerned with the situation that occurs in claims reserving when there are negative values in the development triangle of incremental claim amounts.

Typically these negative values will be the result of salvage recoveries, payments from third parties, total or partial cancellation of outstanding claims due to initial overestimation of the loss or to a possible favorable jury decision in favor of the insurer, rejection by the insurer, or just plain errors. Some of the traditional methods of claims reserving, such as the chain-ladder technique, may produce estimates of the reserves even when there are negative values.

Historically the chain-ladder method has been used as a gold standard benchmark because of its generalized use and ease of application. This paper presents a Bayesian model to consider negative incremental values, based on a three-parameter log-normal distribution. The model presented here allows the actuary to provide point estimates and measures of dispersion, as well as the complete distribution for outstanding claims from which the reserves can be derived. It is concluded that the method has a clear advantage over other existing methods. The BMOM is particularly useful for obtaining post-data moments and densities for parameters and future observations when the form of the likelihood function is unknown and thus a traditional Bayesian approach cannot be used.

Also, even when the form of the likelihood is assumed known, in time series problems it is sometimes difficult to formulate an appropriate prior density. Here, we show how the BMOM approach can be used in two, nontraditional problems. The first one is conditional forecasting in regression and time series autoregressive models. Specifically, it is shown that when forecasting disaggregated data say quarterly data and given aggregate constraints say in terms of annual data it is possible to apply a Bayesian approach to derive conditional forecasts in the multiple regression model. The types of constraints conditioning usually considered are that the sum, or the average, of the forecasts equals a given value.

This kind of condition can be applied to forecasting quarterly values whose sum must be equal to a given annual value. Analogous results are obtained for AR p models. The second problem we analyse is the issue of aggregation and disaggregation of data in relation to predictive precision and modelling. Predictive densities are derived for future aggregate values by means of the BMOM based on a model for disaggregated data. They are then compared with those derived based on aggregated data.

En este trabajo se analiza el problema en el contexto de muestreo por conglomerados. Se presenta un estimador puntual y uno para la varianza del total. The problem of estimating the accumulated value of a positive and continuous variable for which some partially accumulated data has been observed, and usually with only a small number of observations two years , can be approached taking advantage of the existence of stable seasonality from one period to another.

For example the quantity to be predicted may be the total for a period year and it needs to be made as soon as partial information becomes available for given subperiods months. These conditions appear in a natural way in the prediction of seasonal sales of style goods, such as toys; in the behavior of inventories of goods where demand varies seasonally, such as fuels; or banking deposits, among many other examples.

In this paper, the problem is addressed within a cluster sampling framework. A ratio estimator is proposed for the total value to be forecasted under the assumption of stable seasonality. Estimators are obtained for both the point forecast and the variance. The procedure works well when standard methods cannot be applied due to the reduced number of observations. Some real examples are included as well as applications to some previously published data.

Comparisons are made with other procedures. We present a Bayesian solution to forecasting a time series when few observations are available. The quantity to predict is the accumulated value of a positive, continuous variable when partially accumulated data are observed. These conditions appear naturally in predicting sales of style goods and coupon redemption.

A simple model describes the relation between partial and total values, assuming stable seasonality. Exact analytic results are obtained for point forecasts and the posterior predictive distribution. Noninformative priors allow automatic implementation. Examples are provided. We give a brief description of the Project and characteristics of the target population.

We then describe and use the FGT Index to determine if the communities included in the Project were correctly chosen. We describe the method of cost-effectiveness analysis used in this article. The procedure for specifying cost-effectiveness ratios is next presented, and their application to measure the impact of PNAS on Food Expenditures carried out. Finally we present empirical results that show that, among other results, PNAS increased Food Expenditures of the participating households by 7.

The evidence is mostly qualitative, however, since there are no methods for measuring this participation quantitatively. In this paper we present a procedure for generating an aggregate index of community participation based on productivity. It is specifically aimed at measuring community participation in the construction of works for collective benefit.

Because there are limitations on the information available, additional assumptions must be made to estimate parameters. The method is applied to data from communities in Mexico participating in a national nutrition, food and health program. A Bayesian approach is used to derive constrained and unconstrained forecasts in an autoregressive time series model. Both are obtained by formulating an AR p model in such a way that it is possible to compute numerically the predictive distribution for any number of forecasts.

The types of constraints considered are that a linear combination of the forecasts equals a given value. This kind of restriction is applied to forecasting quarterly values whose sum must be equal to a given annual value. Constrained forecasts are generated by conditioning on the predictive distribution of unconstrained forecasts. The problem of temporal disaggregation of time series is analyzed by means of Bayesian methods.

The disaggregated values are obtained through a posterior distribution derived by using a diffuse prior on the parameters. Further analysis is carried out assuming alternative conjugate priors. The means of the different posterior distribution are shown to be equivalent to some sampling theory results. Bayesian prediction intervals are obtained. Forecasts for future disaggregated values are derived assuming a conjugate prior for the future aggregated value. A formulation of the problem of detecting outliers as an empirical Bayes problem is studied.

In so doing we encounter a non-standard empirical Bayes problem for which the notion of average risk asymptotic optimality a. Some general theorems giving sufficient conditions for a. These general results are then used in various formulations of the outlier problem for underlying normal distributions to give a. Rates of convergence results are also given using the methods of Johns and Van Ryzin. This article examines the distinctive characteristics and features of how both women and men speak. Based on this analysis, the author will make an assessment, and then invite the reader to become aware of their manner of speaking.

En el presente trabajo, estudiamos los espacios de Brown, que son conexos y no completamente de Hausdorff. Escribimos algunas consecuencias de este resultado. Esto generaliza un resultado probado por Kirch en In the present paper we study Brown spaces which are connected and not completely Hausdorff. We also show that some elements of BG are Brown spaces, while others are totally separated.

We write some consequences of such result. For example, the space N, TG is not connected "im kleinen" at each of its points. This generalizes a result proved by Kirchin We also present a simpler proof of a result given by Szczuka in Morsi, A. In recent years has increased interest in the development of new materials in this case composites, as these more advanced materials can perform their work better than conventional materials.

In the present work we analyze the effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes incorporating nano silver particles to increase both their electrical and mechanical properties. The obtained alloys were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM , X-Ray Diffraction Analysis, hardness tests were performed and electrical conductivity tests were finally carried out. The salts were placed in the inlet to promote corrosion and increase the chemical reaction. These salts were applied to the alloys via discontinuous exposures.

The corrosion products were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The presence of Mo, Al and Si was not significant and there was no evidence of chemical reaction of these elements. The most active elements were the Fe and Cr in the metal base. The steel with the best performance was alloy Fe9Cr3AlSi3Mo, due to the effect of the protective oxides inclusive in presence of the aggressive salts.

Clustering is an unsupervised process to determine which unlabeled objects in a set share interesting properties. The objects are grouped into k subsets clusters whose elements optimize a proximity measure. Methods based on information theory have proven to be feasible alternatives. They attempt to minimize the entropy of each cluster. We propose a clustering method based on the maximum entropy principle. Such a method explores the space of all possible probability distributions of the data to find one that maximizes the entropy subject to extra conditions based on prior information about the clusters.

As a consequence of such a principle, those distributions of high entropy that satisfy the conditions are favored over others. Searching the space to find the optimal distribution of object in the clusters represents a hard combinatorial problem, which disallows the use of traditional optimization techniques. Genetic algorithms are a good alternative to solve this problem. We benchmark our method relative to the best theoretical performance, which is given by the Bayes classifier when data are normally distributed, and a multilayer perceptron network, which offers the best practical performance when data are not normal.

In general, a supervised classification method will outperform a non-supervised one, since, in the first case, the elements of the classes are known a priori. This clearly exhibits the superiority of our method. One of the basic endeavors in Pattern Recognition and particularly in Data Mining is the process of determining which unlabeled objects in a set do share interesting properties. This implies a singular process of classification usually denoted as "clustering", where the objects are grouped into k subsets clusters in accordance with an appropriate measure of likelihood.