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These enclaves were the source of customs revenues, which, with some foreign loans, were the main fiscal resources of the Venezuelan government. Caracas had its port of La Guaira , to which it had been connected by a railroad.

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Valencia was linked to Puerto Cabello. Maracaibo constituted an enclave in itself. The eastern llanos had an excellent natural harbor near Lecherias, but its potential was not discovered until well into the 20th century with the rise of the oil industry. The telegraph had been introduced since the s, but it went from Caracas to Valencia. He adeptly contracted loans for Venezuela, from which he amassed a small fortune. He wanted to make Caracas a mini-Paris and he did build some theaters and a capitol, but these projects were on a very minor scale.

He was also good at progressive legislation. He declared education free and obligatory for all Venezuelans, but Venezuela still had no roads, so his decree was wishful thinking. The political stability of Venezuela was principally the doing of his principal lieutenant.

He died there in He had left behind statues of himself and other reminders of his prolonged direct and indirect rule. Also, he left a country in relative peace. He turned power over to another civilian, Raimundo Andueza Palacios , who forgot the cardinal rule of relying on caudillos for support, a power vacuum which Crespo promptly filled in Ambitious but unassuming, Crespo ruled until and handed power to Ignacio Andrade, but Crespo was the military mainstay of the government. In suppressing a serious threat to the government he was killed in action and Andrade was left to fend for himself.

Under Crespo, Venezuela experienced an international crisis in what became known as the Venezuela Crisis of The crisis occurred over Venezuela 's longstanding dispute with the United Kingdom about the territory of Essequibo and Guayana Esequiba , which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory.

History of Venezuela (1830–1908)

As the dispute became a crisis, the key issue became Britain's refusal to include in the proposed international arbitration the territory east of the " Schomburgk Line ", which a surveyor had drawn half a century earlier as a boundary between Venezuela and the former Dutch territory of British Guiana. A tribunal convened in Paris in to decide the matter, and in awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.

Of all the regions of Venezuela, the Andes and Guayana had not participated actively in the many insurrections that had plagued the other parts of Venezuela. The llanos had been the great battleground of most of the confrontations between caudillos, whose struggles spilled over into Barquisimeto. Coro had been the favorite landing site for most of the rebellions, especially the Great War of the Caudillos. Maracaibo at one time tried to go autonomous and had to be taken by arms. Guayana was so under-populated it hardly counted. But the Andes was another story.

It was the richest region of Venezuela through the export of coffee. It had a healthful, high-altitude climate. It probably accounted for perhaps half the total population of Venezuela. Malaria and yellow fever and other tropical scourges had become endemic in the llanos.

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A rebel from Trujillo, the Andean province closest to central Venezuela, had once tried and failed at rebellion. When Crespo was killed, Venezuela entered a period of uncertainty as Andrade was not himself a caudillo and he was Crespo's placeman. Castro met practically no resistance on his march to Caracas. As was to be expected, the new government was like lighting not one but many fuses to many enterprising, aspiring caudillos.

Few would deny two things about Castro: he was a debauchee with an insatiable taste for cognac and he was a daredevil in foreign relations defying Europe as if he had a navy and adequate coastal defences. Many Venezuelans consider Castro a great patriot but in fact, when he got embroiled with his Venezuela's European creditors, he did not hesitate to invoke the Monroe Doctrine in defense of his country's sovereignty, just as previous presidents had tried to do in relation to the issues which culminated in the Venezuela Crisis of Castro had nothing to do with this affair, but he inherited from his predecessors a burden of foreign debt which he refused to honor.

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The resulting crisis of —3 saw an international fleet of European gunboats blockade Venezuela's coasts. With the Guiana border precedent in mind, Castro invoked again the Monroe Doctrine. Germany was aggressively pursuing its blockade in western Venezuela, where there was a large colony of German merchants in Maracaibo, and this preoccupied the Theodore Roosevelt administration, which told the Germans to back off.

Castro was reluctantly forced to start paying up, but the total cancellation of the overdue bills did not occur under his government. Another war, this time with the Netherlands , broke out in late This was the beginning of a regime that lasted until and is interwoven with the early development of the oil industry, the greatest influence ever on the history of Venezuela. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The usual pattern was that some local, usually white, caudillo would "recruit" an "army" of or more pardos and make a pompous "revolutionary" proclamation.

If this caudillo had some measure of charisma, he could put other caudillos on his side and, with the other recruited pardos, march on Caracas. If he succeeded in seizing power, his continued success depended on his getting other caudillos to put down the minor insurrections that cropped up here and there against him. There were other features of note. In Venezuela, as if the caudillos had a tacit understanding among themselves, there were no political executions with but one minor?

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All a significant caudillo had to fear from failure was either jail, usually for a short term, or exile. However, these privileges did not extend to the pardos, who were easy to recruit, easy to punish, and easy to forget once a caudillo was in power. From until , chieftains from the Andean regions held the presidency. Roughly, one can divide the history of Venezuela in the 19th century into the following periods: [5]. Although the Constitution prescribed democracy, tradition and practical difficulties militated against the actual working of a republican form of government, and in practice an oligarchy governed the nation.

It had little occasion to deal with war-related diplomacy between Venezuela and other states, because Venezuela had only small military forces and they had the primary function of protecting the presidency from internal threats and of maintaining order. This has remained the essential role of the Venezuelan military to the present day [update]. The Foreign Office dealt mostly with difficulties involving foreign citizens doing business in Venezuela: especially breaches of contract, damage to persons and property during civil strife, and acts of oppression such as illegal imprisonment of aliens.

As a civilian, he had the support of some who wanted an alternative to the independence-war military veterans who had predominated in Venezuelan politics. He resigned permanently in April Monagas, the leader of the rebellion, had served as a distinguished independence-war general. Independence-war general Carlos Soublette, a Conservative, became president in It is the accepted wisdom that all the "elections" that are mentioned as occurring in the Venezuelan 19th century were a sham or non-existent, but this is not exactly accurate.

There were elections, but these were held at the municipal level and of course the pardos had no vote. This tradition of indirect elections through local councils would last in Venezuela until While President Monagas broke with the Conservative Party. Both brothers governed as Liberals. The eastern llanos produced many caudillos because its economy was open to international trade and the exports from that region cattle, hides, coffee were staples of the Venezuelan economy.

Castro became the first military President who had not fought in the War of Independence. Castro was a creature of the Caracas-Valencia oligarchy and not very effectual. During his presidency, there was a proliferation of aspiring caudillos in Caracas itself and he exiled them all.

This was what provoked the Great War of the Caudillos, called in Venezuelan historiography the Guerra Federal or the Federalist War , although federalism was not what these men really had in mind. Castro was not competent either as president or as soldier and he handed power to the civilians of the oligarchy, who were soon being overwhelmed by insurrections in the central and western llanos, with Federalist leaders including Ezequiel Zamora. One result of the War of the Caudillos was that the official denomination of Venezuela was changed from "republic" to the "United States of Venezuela", a national name it had, as well as the motto "God and Federation", until a dictator in the midth century changed it back to "republic".

He was succeeded by weak presidents from central Venezuela. When he came to power, he did not do so in the name of federalism, which he once espoused, but as a liberal. Venezuela was a country of peripheral enclaves, defined by ports through which international commerce was carried on. These enclaves were the source of customs revenues, which, with some foreign loans, were the main fiscal resources of the Venezuelan government. Caracas had its port of La Guaira , to which it had been connected by a railroad.

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Valencia was linked to Puerto Cabello. Maracaibo constituted an enclave in itself. The eastern llanos had an excellent natural harbor near Lecherias, but its potential was not discovered until well into the 20th century with the rise of the oil industry. The telegraph had been introduced since the s, but it went from Caracas to Valencia. He adeptly contracted loans for Venezuela, from which he amassed a small fortune. He wanted to make Caracas a mini-Paris and he did build some theaters and a capitol, but these projects were on a very minor scale.

He was also good at progressive legislation. He declared education free and obligatory for all Venezuelans, but Venezuela still had no roads, so his decree was wishful thinking. The political stability of Venezuela was principally the doing of his principal lieutenant. He died there in He had left behind statues of himself and other reminders of his prolonged direct and indirect rule.